Hopi, the Peace People

Peace People, Hopi

High up on Black Mesa, surrounded by the Navajo Reservation, sits the Hopi village of Old Oraibi, Arizona. It is the oldest, continuously inhabited settlement in the United States. The Hopi began settling here in 1050AD. They are descendents of the ancient cliff dwellers, the Anasazi Indians. Their language is Uto-Aztecan, connecting them to the Aztecs. They live in multi-storied adobe buildings known as pueblos, like many of the distantly related New Mexico Pueblo Indians. In spite of all of these connections to other native tribes, the Hopi have their own distinct culture, religious practices, and traditions.

The name Hopi means good, peaceful, or wise. They call themselves Hopitu, the Peaceable People. In recent years, a group of traditional Hopi’s has split off from the rest of the tribe in order to preserve the traditional culture and beliefs of their Ancestors and to prepare for the time when their Prophecies will be fulfilled. These Hopi’s eschew the conveniences of modern society, preferring a more spiritual and traditional lifestyle.

Many versions of the Hopi Prophecies exist today, each speaking of the destruction of the earth, which they believe is imminent. According to their myths, we now live in the Fourth World, Tuwaqachi, World Complete, and are approaching the Fifth World of Illumination. Their God, Masaw, is the caretaker, guardian, and protector of this Fourth World. The prophecies say that in the beginning of this world, a stone tablet was given to each color of mankind, the red, yellow, black, and white, or the four colors of the Medicine Wheel. Their stories tell us that the four races of men then migrated in separate directions, to learn the lessons for their color and direction, or Air, Fire, Water, and Earth. The Hopi believe that one day these four stone tablets will be brought back together again, and the teachings will be shared.

One aspect of the Hopi’s spiritual life is the Kachinas, who represent the Hopi Gods, Ancestor Spirits, and the spirits of everything that exists in our world. These masked and costumed figures make an appearance at their ceremonials, dancing, playing the part of the spirit they represent, and interacting with the tribal members. Doll-sized representations of the kachinas are hand-carved from Cottonwood for the Hopi children to play with, and to teach them about the Spirit World. Many Kachina dolls are made to sell to tourists, and are prized by collectors of Native art.

The Hopi have a fascinating culture, with a history stretching back for centuries, and containing many beliefs and traditions. Their prophecies are profound, and should be read by all. Most of all, the Hopi are a spiritual people, who live close to the earth. The prophecies and stories of the Peaceable People only entice you to further explore their intriguing culture.

The Official Hopi Culture Preservation Office
Techqua Ikachi: Newsletters of the Hopi Nation

Hopi Chief Dan Evehema writes, “We Hopi believe that the human race has passed through three different worlds and life ways since the beginning. At the end of each prior world,h uman life has been purified or punished by the Great Spirit “Massauu” due mainly to corruption, greed and turning away from the Great Spirit’s teachings. The last great destruction was the flood which destroyed all but a few faithful ones who asked and received a permission from the Great Spirit to live with Him in this new land. The Great Spirit said, “It is up to you, if you are willing to live my poor, humble and simple life way. It is hard but if you agree to live according to my teachings and instructions, if you never lose faith in the life I shall give you, you may come and live with me.” The Hopi and all who were saved from the great flood made a sacred covenant with the Great Spirit at that time.”

Chief Dan Evehema’s Message to Mankind

I am very glad to have this time to send a message to you. We are
celebrating a time in our history which is both filled with joy and
sadness. I am very glad that our Hindu brothers have given us this
opportunity to share these feelings with you because we know many of you
are having the same troubles.

We Hopi believe that the human race has passed through three different
worlds and life ways since the beginning. At the end of each prior world,
human life has been purified or punished by the Great Spirit “Massauu”
due mainly to corruption, greed and turning away from the Great Spirit’s
teachings. The last great destruction was the flood which destroyed all
but a few faithful ones who asked and received a permission from the Great
Spirit to live with Him in this new land. The Great Spirit said, “It
is up to you, if you are willing to live my poor, humble and simple life
way. It is hard but if you agree to live according to my teachings and
instructions, if you never lose faith in the life I shall give you, you may come
and live with me.” The Hopi and all who were saved from the great flood
made a sacred covenant with the Great Spirit at that time.

We Hopi made an oath that we will never turn away from Him. For us the
Creators laws never change or break down. To the Hopi the Great Spirit is
all powerful. He appeared to the first people as a man and talked with
them in the beginning of this creation world. He taught us how to live, to
worship, where to go and what food to carry, gave us seeds to plant and harvest.
He gave us a set of sacred stone tablets into which He breathed all teachings in
order to safeguard his land and life. In these stone tablets were made,
instructions and prophecies and warnings. This was done with the help of a
Spider woman and Her two grandsons. They were wise and powerful helpers of the Great Spirit.

Before the Great Spirit went into hiding, He and Spider woman put before the
leaders of the different groups of people many colors and sized of corn for them
to choose their food in this world. The Hopi was the last to pick and then
choose their food in this world. The Hopi then choose the smallest ear of
corn. Then Massauu said, “You have shown me you are wise and humble
for this reason you will be called Hopi (people of peace) and I will place in
your authority all land and life to guard, protect and hold trust for Me
until I return to you in later days for I am the First and the Last.”

This is why when a Hopi is ordained into the higher religious order, the
earth and all living things are placed upon his hands. He becomes a parent to
all life on earth. He is entitled to advise and correct his children in
whatever peaceful way he can. So we can never give up knowing that our
message of peace will reach our children. Then it is together with the
other spiritual leaders the destiny of our future children is placed.

We are instructed to hold this world in balance within the land and the many
universes with special prayers and ritual which continue to this day.

It was to the Spider woman’s two grandsons the sacred stone tablets were
given. These two brothers were then instructed to carry them to a place the
Great Spirit had instructed them. The older brother was to go immediately to the
East, to the rising sun and upon reaching his destination was instructed to
immediately start to look for his younger brother who shall remain in the land
of the Great Spirit. The Older brothers mission when he returned was to
help his younger brother (Hopi) bring about peace, brotherhood and everlasting
life on his return.

Hopi, the younger brother, was instructed to cover all land and mark it well
with footprints and sacred markings to claim this land for the Creator and peace
on earth. We established our ceremonials and sacred shrines to hold this
world in balance in accordance with our first promise to the Creator. This
is how our migration story goes, until we meet the Creator at Old Oribe (place
that solidifies) over 1000 years ago. It was at that meeting when he gave
to us these prophecies to give to you now at this closing of the Fourth World of
destruction and the beginning of the Fifth World of peace. He gave us many
prophecies to pass on to you and all have come to pass. This is how we
know the timing is now to reveal the last warnings and instructions to mankind.

We were told to settle permanently here in Hopi land where we met the Great Spirit and wait for Older Brother who went east to return to us. When he
returns to this land he will place his stone tablets side by side to show all
the world that they are our true brothers. When the road in the sky has
been fulfilled and when the inventing of something, in Hopi means, gourd of
ashes, a gourd that when drops upon the earth will boil everything within a
large space and nothing will grow for a very long time. When the leaders
turned to evil ways instead of the Great Spirit we were told there would be many
ways this life may be destroyed. If human kind does not heed our prophecy
and return to ones original spiritual instructions. We were told of three
helpers who were commissioned by the Great Spirit to help Hopi bring about the
peaceful life on earth would appear to help us and we should not change our
homes, our ceremonials, our hair, because the true helpers might not recognize
us as the true Hopi. So we have been waiting all these years.

It is known that our True White Brother, when he comes, will be all powerful
and will wear a red cap or red cloak. He will be large in population, belong to
no religion but his very own. He will bring with him the sacred stone
tablets. With him there will be two great ones both very wise and
powerful. One will have a symbol or sign of swastika which represents
purity and is Female, a producer of life. The third one or the second one
of the two helpers to our True White Brother will have a sign of a symbol of the
sun. He, too, will be many people and very wise and powerful. We
have in our sacred Kachina ceremonies a gourd rattle which is still in use today
with these symbols of these powerful helpers of our True Brother.

It is also prophesied that if these three fail to fulfill their mission then
the one from the west will come like a big storm. He will be many,
in numbers and unmerciful. When he comes he will cover the land like
the red ants and over take this land in one day. If the three helpers
chosen by the Creator fulfill their sacred mission and even if there are only
one, two or three of the true Hopi remaining holding fast to the last ancient
teaching and instructions the Great Spirit, Massauu will appear before all and
our world will be saved.

The three will lay our a new life plan which leads to everlasting life and
peace. The earth will become new as it was from the beginning. Flowers
will bloom again, wild games will return to barren lands and there will be
abundance of food for all. Those who are saved will share everything
equally and they all will recognize Great Spirit and speak one language.

We are now faced with great problems, not only here but throughout the
land. Ancient cultures are being annihilated. Our people’s lands are
being taken from them, leaving them no place to call their own. Why is
this happening?

It is happening because many have given up or manipulated their original
spiritual teachings. The way of life which the Great Spirit has given to
all its people of the world, whatever your original instructions are not being
honored. It is because of this great sickness-called greed, which infects
every land and country that simple people are losing what they have kept for
thousands of years.

Now we are at the very end of our trail. Many people no longer
recognize the true path of the Great Spirit. They have, in fact, no respect for
the Great Spirit or for our precious Mother Earth, who gives us all life.

We are instructed in our ancient prophecy that this would occur. We
were told that someone would try to go up to the moon: that they would bring
something back from the moon; and that after that, nature would show signs of
losing its balance. Now we see that coming about. All over the world
there are now many signs that nature is no longer in balance. Floods,
drought, earthquakes, and great storms are occurring and causing much
suffering. We do not want this to occur in our country and we pray to the
Great Spirit to save us from such things. But there are now signs that
this very same thing might happen very soon on our own land.

Now we must look upon each other as brothers and sisters. There is no
more time for divisions between people. Today I call upon all of us, from
right here at home, Hotevilla, where we to are guilty of gossiping and causing
divisions even among our own families; out to the entire world where thievery,
war and lying goes on every day. These divisions will not be our
salvation. Wars only bring more wars never peace.

Only by joining together in a Spiritual Peace with love in our hearts for
one another, love in our hearts for the Great Spirit and Mother Earth, shall we
be saved from the terrible Purification Day which is just ahead.

There are many of you in this world who are honest people. We know you
spiritually for we are the “Men’s Society Grandfathers” who have been
charged to pray for you and all life on earth never forgetting anything or any
one in our ceremonials. Our prayer is to have a good happy life, plenty of
soft gentle rain for abundant crops. We pray for balance on earth to live
in peace and leave a beautiful world to the children yet to come. We know
you have good hearts but good hearts are not enough to help us out with these
great problems. In the past some of you have tried to help us Hopis, and
we will always be thankful for you efforts. But now we need your help in
the worst way. We want the people of the world to know the truth of our

This land which people call the Land of the Freedom celebrates many days
reminding people of the world of these things. Yet in well over 200 years
the original Americans have not seen a free day. We are suffering the
final insult. Our people are now losing the one thing which give life and
meaning of life — our ceremonial land, which is being taken away from us.
Hotevilla is the last holy consecrated, undisturbed traditional Native American
sacred shrine to the Creator. As the prophecy says, this sacred shrine
must keep its spiritual pathways open. This village is the spiritual
vortex for the Hopi to guide the many awakening Native Americans and other true
hearts home to their own unique culture. Hotevilla was established by the
last remaining spiritual elders to maintain peace and balance on this continent
from the tip of South America up to Alaska. Many of our friends say
Hotevilla is a sacred shrine, a national and world treasure and must be
preserved. We need your help.

Where is the freedom which you all fight for and sacrifice your children
for? Is it only the Indian people who have lost or are all Americans
losing the very thing which you original came here to find? We don’t share the
freedom of the press because what gets into the papers is what the government
wants people to believe, not what is really happening. We have no freedom of
speech, because we are persecuted by our own people for speaking our beliefs.

We are at the final stages now and there is a last force that is about to
take away our remaining homeland.

We are still being denied many things including the rite to be Hopis and to
make our living in accordance with our religious teachings. The Hopi
leaders have warned leaders in the White House and the leaders in the Glass
House but they do not listen. So as our prophecy says then it must be up
to the people with good pure hearts that will not be afraid to help us to
fulfill our destiny in peace for this world. We now stand at a cross road
whether to lead ourselves in everlasting life or total destruction. We
believe that human beings spiritual power through prayer is so strong it decides
life on earth.

So many people have come to Hopiland to meet with us. Some of you we
have met on your lands. Many times people have asked how they can help us.
Now I hope and pray that your help will come. If you have a way to spread
the truth, through the newspapers, radio, books, thought meeting with powerful
people, tell the truth! Tell them what you know to be true. Tell them what
you have seen here; what you have heard us say; what you have seen with your own
eyes. In this way, if we do fall, let it be said that we tried, right up
to the end, to hold fast to the path of peace as we were originally instructed
to do by the Great Spirit. Should you really succeed, we will all realize
our mistakes of the past and return to the true path – – living in harmony as
brothers and sisters, sharing our mother, the earth with all other living
creatures. In this way we could bring about a new world. A world
which would be led by the great Spirit and our mother will provide plenty and
happiness for all.

God bless you, each one of you and know our prayers for peace meet yours as
the sun rises and sets.

May the Great Spirit guide you safely into the path of love, peace, freedom
and God on this Earth Mother.

May the holy ancestors of love and light keep you safe in your land and

Pray for God to give you something important to do in this great work which
lies ahead of us all to bring peace on earth. We the Hopi still hold the sacred
stone tablets and now await the coming of our True White Brother and others
seriously ready to work for the Creator’s peace on earth.

Be well, my children, and think good thoughts of peace and
togetherness. Peace for all life on earth and peace with one another in
our homes, families and countries. We are not so different in the
Creator’s eyes. The same great Father Sun shines his love on each of us
daily just as Mother Earth prepares the sustenance for our table, do they
not? We are one after all.

Chief Dan Evehema, (105) Spiritual leader, Eldest Elder Greeswood /

Roadrunner Clan Society Father / Snake Priest / Kachina Father.

From Hotevilla, Arizona, Hopi Sovereign Nation.


Scientifically speaking, does the Earth have its own spirit? Gaia, Wisom of the Earth

Food for thought……

Scientifically speaking, does the Earth have its own spirit?

For hundreds, maybe even thousands of years people have questioned the
why and how of things that occur in, on and around the Earth.

Its almost as if the Earth itself has its own life force or spirit.

The “anima mundi,” the World Soul described by Plato and so many aboriginal societies, tribes, religions and spiritual peoples have honored and worshiped a “Gaia” or “Earth Spirit” and have many names, ceremonies, and celebrations for it.

This has never been a part of the scientific community until now……

The Gaia Theory

Gaia Hypothesis

This will serve as an introduction to the Gaia hypothesis;

It is a review (published in 1989) of James Lovelock‘s The Ages of Gaia

What is the hypothesis of Gaia ? Stated simply, the idea is that we may have discovered a living being bigger, more ancient, and more complex than anything from our wildest dreams. That being, called Gaia, is the Earth.

More precisely: that about one billion years after it’s formation, our planet was occupied by a meta-life form which began an ongoing process of transforming this planet into its own substance. All the life forms of the planet are part of Gaia. In a way analogous to the myriad different cell colonies which make up our organs and bodies, the life forms of earth in their diversity coevolve and contribute interactively to produce and sustain the optimal conditions for the growth and prosperity not of themselves, but of the larger whole, Gaia. That the very makeup of the atmosphere, seas, and terrestrial crust is the result of radical interventions carried out by Gaia through the evolving diversity of living creatures.

Encountering the Earth from space, a witness would know immediately that the planet was alive. The atmosphere would give it away. The atmospheric compositions of our sister planets, venus and mars, are: 95-96% carbon dioxide, 3-4% nitrogen, with traces of oxygen, argon and methane. The earth’s atmosphere at present is 79% nitrogen, 21% oxygen with traces of carbon dioxide, methane and argon.

The difference is Gaia, which transforms the outer layer of the planet into environments suitable to its further growth. For example, bacteria and photosynthetic algae began some 2.8 billions of years ago extracting the carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen into the atmosphere, setting the stage for larger and more energetic creatures powered by combustion, including, ultimately, ourselves.

That is how James Lovelock discovered Gaia; from outer space.In the 1960’s, during the space race which followed the launching of Sputnik, he was asked by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Nasa to help design experiments to detect life on Mars.The Viking lander gathered and tested some Martian soil for life with no results. Lovelock had predicted as much, by analyzing the atmosphere of Mars: it is in a dead equilibrium. By contrast, the atmosphere of Earth is in a “far from equilib rium” state- meaning that there was some other complex process going on which maintained such an unlikely balance. It occurred to him that if the Viking lander had landed on the frozen waste of antarctica, it might not have found any trace of life on Earth either. But a sure giveaway would be a complete atmospheric analysis… which the

Viking lander was not equipped to do. Lovelock’s approach was not popular at Nasa because Nasa needed a good reason to land on Mars, and the best was to look for life. Viking found nothing on Mars, but Lovelock had seen the Earth from the perspective of an ET looking for evidence of life. And he began thinking that what he was seeing was not so much a planet adorned with diverse life forms, but a planet transfigured and transformed by a self-evolving and self-regulating living system.By the nature of its activity it seemed to qualify as a living being. He named that being Gaia, after the Greek goddess which drew the living world forth from Chaos.

“The name of the living planet, Gaia, is not a synonym for the biosphere-that part of the Earth where living things are seen normally to exist. Still less is Gaia the same as the biota, which is simply the collection of all individual living organisms. The biota and the biosphere taken together form a part but not all of Gaia. Just as the shell is part of the snail, so the rocks, the air, and the oceans are part of Gaia.

Gaia Hypothesis

http://erg.ucd.ie/arupa/references/gaia.html (1 of 3) [5/5/2001 9:58:59 AM]

Gaia, as we shall see, has continuity with the past back to the origins of life, and in the future as long as life persists. Gaia, as a total planetary being, has properties that are not necesarily discernable by just knowing individual species or populations of organisms living together… Specifically, the Gaia hypothesis says that the temperature,oxidation, state, acidity, and certain aspects of the rocks and waters are kept constant, and that this homeostasis is maintained by active feedback processes operated automatically and unconsciously by the biota.”

Even the shifting of the tectonic plates, resulting in the changing shapes of the continents, may result from the massive limestone deposits left in the earth by bioforms eons ago.

“You may find it hard to swallow the notion that anything as large and apparently inanimate as the Earth is alive. Surely, you may say, the Earth is almost wholly rock, and nearly all incandescent with heat. The difficulty can be lessened if you let the image of a giant redwood tree enter your mind.The tree undoubtedly is alive, yet 99% of it is dead.The great tree is an ancient spire of dead wood,made of lignin and cellulose by the ancestors of the thin layer of living cells which constitute its bark. How like the Earth, and more so when we realize that many of the atoms of the rocks far down into the magma were once part of the ancestral life of which we all have come.” The root question of Gaia’s critics, and a central point in his theory concerns the difference between a planetary environment which might only be the aggregate result of myriad independent life forms coevolving and sharing the same host, and one which is ultimately created by life forms deployed, so to speak, to accomplish the purpose of the larger

being. Is the idea of Gaia only a romantic and dramatized description of the terrestrial biosphere and its effects, or is there a planetary being, whose life cycle must be counted in the billions of years, which spawns these evolving life forms to suit the purpose of its being. Do our kidney cells ask each other these sorts of questions? While your white blood cells thrive and reproduce, going about their business,they are indisputably serving the life of the larger body which you use, though whatever consciousness they experience in their realm is certainly far from that which you, the larger being, the whole, experience.

Recent scientific work, such as in the field of complex systems, have begun to give us the impression that this opposition of terms, the larger caused by its constituents, or the costituents created by the larger, may be one of those oppositions which are the constructs of our own minds, and must be dropped if we are to understand the truth, which is neither the one nor the other, but more difficult to comprehend and more fascinating to behold. Perhaps there is awareness appropriate at every level.Perhaps that is a property of life.

And what might be the nature of its evolution, this planetary being called Gaia? Anthropocentrists to the last, we might assume that the production of the human species is a great step upward for Gaia, a sort of rapidly evolving brain tissue. Or that she prepares the earth as a cradle and crucible of consciousness evolving. Other analogies come to mind: are we part of her arsenal of interplanetary spores ?

And what might constitute a life cycle for such a being- might it be as strange as that of the slime mold ?

What stage would Gaia be in now? Is our species part of her maturity or an incubation period ? Is Gaia herself somehow part of a larger living being, perhaps on a galactic scale ? If so how do the cells of this larger being remain in communication? Will we eventually be able to experience something of the awareness which Gaia has ?

Lovelock points out that Gaia, being ancient and resourceful enough to have carried out these successive changes of the planet in spite of asteroid collisions and other setbacks, is herself probably not endangered by the relatively momentary depradations of the human species, as it befouls and cripples the

Gaia Hypothesis

http://erg.ucd.ie/arupa/references/gaia.html (2 of 3) [5/5/2001 9:58:59 AM]

bio-dynamics of its environment. Rather,the danger is to the human race, not only from our own actions, but also by Gaia’s reaction to them.

He adds the caveat however, that the passage of a bullet is also momentary, but the damage nonetheless lethal, and that we are not in a position yet to say whether or not some sudden, human caused imbalance, at a critical juncture, might be catastrophic to Gaia.

Lovelock first exposed his idea in his 1979 book, Gaia, a New Look at Life on Earth. The science behind the hypothesis was still sketchy, and it provoked a storm of criticism. It also provoked a lot of research, and the resulting body of information has encouraged Lovelock to publish this second book, a more confident and complete exposition of the Gaia hypothesis.The Ages of Gaia is easily readable for the educated layperson, but includes plenty of scientific depth.

Those of us who consider ourselves to be somehow involved in the birthing of a new age, should discover Gaia as well. The idea of Gaia may facilitate the task of converting destructive human activities to constructive and cooperative behavior. It is an idea which deeply startles us, and in the process, may help us as a species to make the necessary jump to planetary awareness.

Stephen Miller, 1989

All quotes from James Lovelock, taken from The Ages of Gaia

Gaia: The Wisdom of the Earth

Frances Vandervoort
1991 Woodrow Wilson Biology Institute


The object of this activity is to introduce students to a controversial new theory that offers an explanation for the organization and function of the Earth. After completing this activity, students will be able to:

  1. describe, diagram, and give examples of homeostatic mechanisms in individual organisms, communities, ecosystems, and the biosphere.
  2. outline the Earth’s history in terms of solar, geologic, and atmospheric evolution.
  3. describe organic evolution in terms of the relationships of organisms to each other and to the Biosphere.
  4. describe and give examples of how living things affect climate.
  5. prepare and interpret graphs that show changes in the Earth’s temperature and atmospheric gases.
  6. describe and give examples of how human activity has affected the biosphere.
  7. apply homeostatic mechanisms to make predictions about the future of the Earth in terms of relationships between living things and components of the atmosphere.
  8. describe some controversies that surround the theory of Gaia. This should include scientific, social, and, if possible, religious and philosophical components.
  9. explain why Lovelock and Margulis are not concerned about whether life on Earth will continue. In other words, why they believe that Gaia will “survive” even if humans seriously damage to the environment.


The Gaia Theory, first proposed by British scientist James Lovelock in the early 1970’s, is gaining an increasing number of advocates throughout the world’s scientific community. In the United States, its most notable supporter is Dr. Lynn Margulis of the University of Massachusetts, whose explanation of the origin of eukaryotic cells through symbiotic relationships among prokaryotic organisms revolutionized evolutionary thought in the late 1960’s. Gaian theory holds that the Earth can be described as a vast, autopoietic system of many components, all of which have evolved together to enhance and regulate conditions for the perpetuation of life.

Simple examples of how the Earth regulates itself include the maintaining an atmospheric oxygen level at close to 20 per cent for several hundred million years. If this level were to fluctuate to as high as 25 per cent, a single spark could ignite a conflagration that would sweep across the continent. If the oxygen level were 15 per cent or less, lighting a match would be impossible. Also, geologic evidence indicates that for the same length of time the salinity of the ocean has remained remarkably constant at somewhat less than 10 per cent of saturation. This is particularly remarkable because dissolved minerals have been transported by water toward oceans almost since Earth was formed. No satisfactory explanation has been advanced for this constancy, which affects all life on Earth.

The scientific community remains divided about the Gaia Theory. Many well-known scientists argue that since they know of no way to test Gaia scientifically, it is little more than a metaphor explaining phenomena that can be explained mechanistically. As more evidence becomes available, including recent work by Mazumder (1991), and Ramanathan (1991), the case for a Gaian regulation system becomes stronger. Scientists and science educators owe it to themselves to be informed about developments in the Gaian issues. Gaia is based upon true science. It provides opportunities for testing, predicting, and challenging established scientific thought at all academic and scientific levels. Also, it offers many ideas for scientific experimentation.


Terminology. The following terms are useful in understanding the nature of Gaian theory. It is suggested that teachers list them on the board and briefly discuss them with students to establish a setting for activities to follow.

  1. Albedo. This is the reflectivity of the Earth’s atmosphere. It is increased by clouds and atmospheric particles, including those from combustion, dust storms, and volcanoes.
  2. “Goldilocks Phenomenon” . This is a simple way of stating that Venus is too hot for life to exist, Mars too cold, and Earth is just right.
  3. Greenhouse effect. The warming of the Earth due to the tendency of heat to be trapped within the lower levels of the atmosphere by atmospheric gases, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbons. Since human activity has increased the quantities of these gases in the atmosphere, there is concern that the temperature of the Earth in increasing. Theoretically, this could lead to vast disruptions of ecosystems, flooding of coastal areas because of the melting of polar icecaps, and desertification of previously productive areas.
  4. Homeostasis. This has been described by American physiologist Walter B. Cannon as the “wisdom of the body”. It is the tendency of living things to sustain themselves by maintaining a dynamic equilibrium with the environment. Temperature regulation in mammals provides an excellent example of this: a mammal exposed to cold first perceives lowered temperature with sensory receptors in its skin. In short order, the central nervous system emits signals for peripheral blood vessels to contract, body hair to become erect, and muscle tissue to start shivering, thus increasing surface temperature. So in short order, the body increases its natural insulation and increases its metabolism.
  5. Oxygen – carbon dioxide cycling. This describes the uptake of carbon dioxide and production of oxygen by photosynthetic organisms, which when combined with the uptake of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide by respiration and burning, creates a cycle.


Since 900 A. D. the average temperature of the Earth has fluctuated around 15o C. The following data show the average fluctuations above or below 15o C per 50 years from 900 A. D. until 2000 A. D. (projected).

900 -0.25
1000 +0.10
1100 +0.20
1200 +0.25
1300 +0.20
1400 -0.30
1500 -0.20
1600 -0.60
1700 -0.50
1800 -0.60
1900 +0.10
2000 +0.20

Make a graph of these data, with time on the horizontal axis and temperature on the vertical axis. On the vertical axis, write the numbers 14o C, 15o C, and 16o C, with at least 3 divisions between each degree (14.2o C, 14.4o C, etc). Discuss trends shown on the graph.

Audiovisual Activities

Show students the NOVA program, The Goddess of the Earth (1986). Discussion afterwards should include questions about the research of various scientists in the program, evidence for various scientific ideas, and attitudes different groups of people have toward Gaia.

Other audiovisual programs include the computer activity SimEarth, the Living Planet (Maxis, Inc., 1990), and Daisyworld, available through audiovisual supply companies.

Laboratory Activities

Activities associated with Gaia include the construction and monitoring of environmental chambers containing plants and other organisms (including simple systems that can be enclosed in plastic bottles), outdoor environmental monitoring and sampling, and population studies with simple organisms such as earthworms, planaria, and pill bugs. These activities can be adapted to a variety of grade levels.

There is no real way to conclude studies of Gaian systems, any more than there is a way to conclude the study of life in a biology class. It is a concept that lends itself to a class or to the curriculum of an entire school. The significance of its role in a school can be determined by teachers. Its importance in understanding the Earth is still emerging.


Eddy, John A. “Global Change: Where Are We? Where Are We Going?” Earthquest. Spring, 1991. Pp. 38-42.

Eddy, John A. “Global Changes of the Past,” In Bradley, R. S., Ed. Global Changes of the Past. Boulder: OIES, 1991.

Goddess of the Earth. NOVA program from WGBH, Boston. 60 minutes. 1986.

Greadel, T. E., and P. J. Crutzen. “The Changing Atmosphere.” Readings from Scientific American. 1990.

Lovelock, James E. Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth. Oxford University Press, 1972.

Lovelock, James E. The Ages of Gaia. New York: W. W. Norton. 1988.

Mann, Charles. “Lynn Margulis: Science’s Unruly Earth Mother.” Science, Vol. 252, April 19, 1991. Pp. 378-381.

Mazumba, Asit. “Ripple Effects.” The Sciences. November/December, 1990. Pp. 38-42.

Mitchell, J. F. B. “The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change.” Reviews of Geophysics. Vol 27, 115-139.

Rowland, F. S., and I. S. A. Isakson, Eds. The Changing Atmosphere. New. York: John Wiley and Sons, 1988.

Stevens, William K. “An Oceanic Indication That Earth’s Climate Might Regulate Itself.” New York Times, Tuesday, May 7, 1991. P. B6.

Tired of annoying phone solicitors?

want to be on the DO NOT CALL LIST?
are you sick and tired of annoying calls and letters?


Make ’em pay! Here’s a link to the Direct Marketers Association Complaining Section. And there’s other info in their FAQ section located here.

To get your name/address/phone number removed from “the system” you’ll need to send two letters, one for junk mail and one for junk phone calls. Contact the Direct Marketing Association Consumer Assistance website, www.the-dma.org/, or write to them directly at (for mail): DMA Mail Preference Service, PO Box 9008, Farmingdale, NY 11735-9008 and (for phone lists): DMA Telephone Preference Service, PO Box 9014, Farmingdale, NY 11735-9014. Make sure you let them know that you wish to be removed from all unrequested mail and telephone solicitation call lists. While you’re at it, notify all three of the major credit reporting bureaus in writing that you do not want them to sell your name to marketers for the purpose of extending credit or other marketing offers. Fire out your letters today:

Experian-National Consumer Assistance Center
PO Box 2104
Allen, TX 75013-2104

Equifax-Information Service Center
PO Box 105873
Atlanta, GA 30348

TransUnion-Attn: Marketing Opt-Out
PO Box 97328
Jackson, MS 39288-7328

Allow them about 60-90 days to get you out of their “system.”

Are you bipolar? Do you have Anxiety or Depression?

Bipolar Symptoms Checklist

Symptoms of Mania:

  • Increased energy, activity, restlessness, racing
  • thoughts and rapid speech
  • Excessive euphoria
  • Extreme irritability and distractibility
  • Decreased sleep requirement
  • Uncharacteristically poor judgment
  • Increased sexual drive
  • Denial that anything is wrong
  • Overspending
  • Risk-behaviour

Take the Mania Questionaire

Symptoms of Depression:

  • Persistent sad, anxious or empty mood
    Feelings of hopelessness, pessimism, guilt, worthlessness or helplessness
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in ordinary activities, including sex
  • Decreased energy, feelings of fatigue
  • Difficulty in concentrating, remembering or making decisions
  • Change in appetite or weight
  • Thoughts of death or suicide

Mania Diagnosis Checklist

This questionaire is for informational purposes only. This is no substitute for a qualified health professional for diagnosis and treatment of Depression or Bipolar Disprder.


You might reproduce this scale and use it on a weekly basis to track your moods. It also might be used to show your doctor how your symptoms have changed from one visit to the next.

Changes of five or more points are significant. This scale is not designed to make a diagnosis or take the place of a professional diagnosis. If you suspect that you are depressed or Bipolar, please consult with a mental health professional as soon as possible.

The 18 items in each section refer to how you have felt and behaved DURING THE PAST WEEK.

1. My mind has never been sharper.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot Very much

2. I need less sleep than usual.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot Very much

3. I have so many plans and new ideas that it is hard for me to work.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

4. I feel a pressure to talk and talk.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

5. I have been particularly happy.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

6. I have been more active than usual
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

7. I talk so fast that people have a hard time keeping up with me.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

8. I have more new ideas than I can handle.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

9. I have been irritable.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

10. It’s easy for me to think of jokes and funny stories.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot Very much

11. I have been feeling like “the life of the party.”
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

12. I have been full of energy.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

13. I have been thinking about sex.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot Very much

14. I have been feeling particularly playful.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot Very much

15. I have special plans for the world.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

16. I have been spending too much money.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

17. My attention keeps jumping from one idea to another.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

18. I find it hard to slow down and stay in one place.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot

_ Very much

Depression Diagnosis Checklist

1. I do things slowly.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

2. My future seems hopeless.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

3. It is hard for me to concentrate on reading.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

4. The pleasure and joy has gone out of my life.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

5. I have difficulty making decisions.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

6. I have lost interest in aspects of life that used to be important to me.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

7. I feel sad, blue, and unhappy.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

8. I am agitated and keep moving around.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

9. I feel fatigued.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

10. It takes great effort for me to do simple things.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

11. I feel that I am a guilty person who deserves to be punished.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

12. I feel like a failure.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

13. I feel lifeless — more dead than alive.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

14. My sleep has been disturbed — too little, too much, or broken sleep.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

15. I spend time thinking about HOW I might kill myself.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

16. I feel trapped or caught.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

17. I feel depressed even when good things happen to me.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

18. Without trying to diet, I have lost, or gained, weight.
_ Not at all
_ Just a little
_ Somewhat
_ Moderately
_ Quite a lot
_ Very much

Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition that requires long term treatment.

Treatment usually consists of medication, but psychotherapy can be of great benefit to people when combined with drug treatment.

Because of the nature of the illness, a single drug may not be enough to control symptoms during a mood episode, so often a combination of medication is necessary depending on the phase of the illness and the severity of the symptoms.

Mood stabilizers are the mainstay of drug treatment for bipolar disorder. They are used to treat manic, hypo manic and mixed episodes and are also used as long term, or maintenance treatment to prevent relapses and delay further mood episodes.

Some mood-stabilisers may take a week or two to reach a therapeutic blood level and then they may take a few more weeks to take effect. In acute situations, another drug may be needed while the mood-stabiliser starts to take effect.

The most commonly used mood stabilizer is lithium. This is the oldest and most widely used treatment and is usually the first drug you will be prescribed when diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Common side effects include : lethargy, diarrhea, nausea, frequent urination, tremor and weight gain. The blood level of lithium must be monitored regularly because the therapeutic blood
level is quite close to the toxic level. Once a stable blood level has been established, blood tests can be done every 4-6months.

Treatment of depression

Antidepressants are used in the depressed phase of the illness. There are several types of antidepressant, each with a different mechanism of action. The most common are:

SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors)


MAOIs (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors)

Bupropion (available in the USA only)

If used alone, antidepressants can sometimes cause “switching” into mania. Typically a mood stabilizer is prescribed in addition to the antidepressant to prevent this “overshoot” into mania. Antidepressants can take several weeks to take effect.

ECT (Electro convulsive Therapy) may be used for very severe, treatment resistant depression.

If the depression is very severe, hospitalization may be necessary because of the risk of suicide.

Treatment of mania

Mania is usually treated with a mood stabilizer, but additional treatment with a drug used to treat anxiety (an anxiolytic) may also be needed for the insomnia or agitation typically experienced in a manic episode. If the manic symptoms are particularly severe, for example if delusions are experienced, an anti psychotic drug may be given in addition to the above. Anxiolytic and anti psychotic medication acts quickly and may only be needed for a few weeks to control the acute symptoms. Brief hospitalization may be necessary for the safety of an individual during a manic episode. Often people can lose insight into their illness during a manic episode. They need close supervision to prevent harm to themselves and to others.

Some Of The Most Commonly Used
Medications Today




Mood Stabilizers


First thing you should do to get out of depression
Willie Krut

Depression, in psychiatry, is a symptom of mood disorder characterized by intense feelings of loss, sadness, hopelessness, failure, and rejection. The two major types of mood disorder are unipolar disorder, also called major depression, and bipolar disorder, whose sufferers are termed manic-depressive.

Here are few suggestions to get the better of the depressed mood
and get the most happiness out of your daily activities.

Take a Break.

I mean it.

Listen to soothing music. Soak in a nice warm
bath. Ask one of your close friends to massage
you. Take a break from your stressful workload
and spend the day just goofing around. In other
words, have fun.

Eat Right and Stay Fit.

Avoid foods with lots of sugar, caffeine, or
alcohol. Sugar and caffeine may give you a
brief moment of energy; but they would later
bring about anxiety , tension, and internal
problems. Alcohol is a depressant. Many people
would drink alcohol to “forget their problems.”
They’re just aggravating their conditions in the

Exercising regularly is a vital depression buster
because it allows your body to produce more
endorphins than usual. Endorphins are sometimes
called “the happy chemicals” because of their
stress-reducing and happiness-inducing properties.

Get Enough Light and Sunshine.

Lack of exposure to sunlight is responsible for the
secretion of the hormone melatonin, which could trigger
a dispirited mood and a lethargic condition.

Melatonin is only produced in the dark. It lowers the
body temperature and makes you feel sluggish. If you
are always cooped up in your room (with the curtains
closed), it would be difficult to restrain yourself
from staying in bed.

This is the reason why many people are suffering from
depression much more often in winter than in the other
seasons. It’s because the nights are longer.

If you can’t afford to get some sunshine, you can
always lighten up your room with brighter lights.
Have lunch outside the office. Take frequent walks
instead of driving your car over short distances.

Get Busy. Get Inspired.

You’ll be more likely to overcome any feeling of
depression if you are too busy to notice it. Live
a life full of inspired activities.

Do the things you love. If you’re a little short
on cash, you could engage in simple stuffs like
taking a leisurely stroll in the park, playing
sports, reading books, or engaging in any activity
that you have passion for and would love to pursue.

Set a goal – a meaningful purpose in life. No
matter how difficult or discouraging life can be,
remain firm and have an unshakable belief that you
are capable of doing anything you desire. With
this kind of positive attitude, you will attain
a cheerful disposition to beat the blues.

Get a Social Life.

No man is an island. Your circle of friends are
there to give you moral support. Spending time
and engaging in worthwhile activities with them
could give you a very satisfying feeling. Nothing
feels better than having group support.

Never underestimate the power of touch. Doesn’t
it feel so good when someone pats you on the back
and gives you words of encouragement during your
most challenging times? Hug or embrace someone
today. You’ll never know when you have saved
another life.

Get intimate. Establish close ties with your
family and friends. The love and care expressed
by others could tremendously boost your immune
system and fend off illnesses. Best of all, you’ll
live a more secured and happy life.

Learn more how to manage and conquer your depression, please visit the http://www.welcome-to-self-improvement.com site.

Natural Remedies
if (!document.all) { window.frames.length=0; }

This page will list some of the remedies that can be used to help with your problems. Not everyone wants to resort to Medication so here you will find some natural remedies that may help you.

Topics that are covered here are:

Bach Flowers Vitamin B Omega-3 Fatty acids Homeopathy Amino acids Minerals Massage Aromatherapy St John‘s Wort

Bach Flowers

The Bach Flower Essences is a system of 38 Flower Essences that corrects emotional imbalances: negative emotions are replaced with positive.

The Bach Flower Essences are 100% safe and natural and work in conjunction with herbs, homeopathy and medications. They are safe for everyone, including children, pregnant women, pets, elderly and even plants.

There are 38 essences and a good description of them all can be found at: http://www.bachflower.com/38_Essences.htm

The four most common remedies for Panic/Anxiety are as follows:

Rock Rose is the remedy against terror, and as such is an important ingredient in Rescue Remedy.

Aspen is the remedy for unfounded fears.

Cherry plum is the remedy for fear of losing your mind.

Rescue Remedy is the most famous of the remedies, but in fact is not a remedy at all, but rather a mix of five different remedies (Cherry Plum, Clematis, Impatiens, Rock Rose and Star of Bethlehem) which together help deal with any emergency or stressful event. Taking a driving test, exam nerves, speaking in public, after an accident or an argument – there are countless uses for Rescue Remedy.

In times of extreme stress use 4 drops neat straight onto your tongue as often as needed. For challenging days add 8- 12 drops to a bottle of mineral water and sip liberally all day – i.e. perhaps when driving.

If you want to make up you own mixture you can do so, using up to 7 essences in a mixture.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Check out this link for all the answers: http://www.bachcentre.com/centre/faq.htm

Where to buy?

In the UK these remedies are available at most health care shops including Lloyds, Boots, Holland & Barrett, Tesco etc.

In the USA check out http://www.bachflower.com

If you go to the following site, you can enter details of where you live and you will get a list of retailers selling Bach Flowers: http://www.bachessences.com. The site also has a remedy selector section where you fill in the short questionnaire about your symptoms and it suggests which remedies are best for you.

Other Links


Vitamin B

I am not going to simply list every vitamin here that will help but I am going to mention Vitamin B as that is very important.

Vitamin B is to boost your immune system (found in your green veg) and is the vital vitamin that keeps our nervous system together.

Vitamin B Complex

The B-complex vitamins are actually a group of eight vitamins, which include thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid (B9), cyanocobalamin (B12), pantothenic acid and biotin. These vitamins are essential for:

  • The breakdown of carbohydrates into glucose (this provides energy for the body)
  • The breakdown of fats and proteins (which aids the normal functioning of the nervous system)
  • Muscle tone in the stomach and intestinal tract
  • Skin
  • Hair
  • Eyes
  • Mouth
  • Liver

You need to be taking a strong 50-100 mg Vitamin B complex supplement in the morning as it can lead to insomnia as it releases energy.

Don’t be alarmed but it may turn your urine bright yellow.

If you are a smoker then you need to be taking Vitamin C at the same time.

Vitamin B Complex is commonly available at all chemist/health shops or a reputable online site is http://www.questvitamins.co.uk

Vitamin B’s

Always good to take a complex for the nerves and depression but certain vitamin B’s are very valuable in higher doses.

Niacinamide (not niacin as it can be toxic in high doses) – calms the brain and binds to the same receptors like Valium and Xanax do. Doctors recommend 500mg 1-4 times a day. Avoid the extended release tablets as they are bad for the liver.

Inositol – A non essential vitamin B. In high doses has been found to be very effective for OCD, panic and anxiety! You can start at 500mg, and up it to you find the dose that suits you. Also good for the liver. OCD has been shown to effective at around 18 grams! yes grams. Panic up to 12 grams. But we are all different and lower doses are often good too. The higher doses have been found to be completely safe, even at doses as high as 50 grams!! (but I doubt very much anyone would need that much). You can buy it in powder form (cheaper that capsules if you take a lot), 1/4 teaspoon can equal 700mg.

Vitamin B6 – doses around 50mg 3-4 times a day can help anxiety.

Omega-3 Fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fats, one of four basic types of fat that the body derives from food. (Cholesterol, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat are the others.) All polyunsaturated fats, including the omega-3s, are increasingly recognized as important to human health.

Omega-3 Lessens the Body’s Overreaction to Stress

It appears that DHA and EPA — the essential fatty acids that come from Omega-3 — may lessen the body’s overreaction to stress. This is wonderful news for people that suffer from stress overload, anxiety and depression!

DHA and EPA appear to act as mood stabilizers. This may explain why increasing consumption of Omega-3 has been associated with a less intense reaction to stress.

Most recently, in a small study in France researchers decided to study how adding large amounts of Omega-3 to diet might affect the response to stress. They exposed volunteers to a mental stressor while measuring stress indicators such as levels of the stress chemicals epinephrine and cortisol, energy levels, and more.

Then they tested again after three weeks of adding large amounts of Omega-3 fatty acids to the volunteers’ diets.

The results were that the increase in Omega-3 lessened the level of stress chemicals, energy levels, and other stress indicators in the volunteers.

The researchers concluded that supplementing the diet with Omega-3 inhibits the fight or flight response triggered by mental stress.

This is good news for anxiety sufferers. It appears that Omega-3 calms the body’s fight or flight response and the long list of physical anxiety symptoms” you experience when the false alarm goes off. It brings your body’s reaction to mental stress down a notch or two.

I do not want to flood this page with anymore info about Omega-3 but for some more detailed info and research into it then click here


Homeopathic medicine is a natural pharmaceutical science that uses various plants, minerals or animals in very small dose to stimulate the sick person’s natural defenses. The medicines are individually chosen for their ability to cause in overdose the similar symptoms the person is experiencing. “Homoios” in Greek means similar and “pathos” means disease or suffering. Since one’s symptoms are actually efforts of the organism to reestablish homeostasis or balance, it is logical to seek a substance that would, in overdose, cause the similar symptoms the person is experiencing. The medicines, thus, go with, rather than against, the person’s natural defenses.

In essence, homeopathy is composed of two highly systematic methods: toxicology and casetaking. First, homeopaths find out the specific physical, emotional, and mental symptoms that various substances cause in overdose. Homeopathic texts have more detail on toxicology than any other source. Second, the homeopaths interview their patients in great detail to discover the totality of physical, emotional and mental symptoms the person is experiencing. The homeopath seeks to find a substance that would cause the similar symptoms the person has and then gives it in small, specially prepared dose.

Aconite is the medication of choice if your anxiety is the result of a sudden fright or shock. If you are grief stricken (such as when one of your loved ones die), the homeopath may give you Ignatia. In situations such as stage fright and other anticipatory and performance anxiety, Gelsemium is recommended. If you have anxiety accompanied by diarrheoa, Gelsemium is the preferred choice.

Begin with a 6c strength and take two tablets every two to four hours depending on the severity, or acuteness, of the illness. Once you begin to notice improvement, increase the intervals between dosages, and when it seems that improvement is well on its way, discontinue the treatment. If you use a remedy longer than necessary, it might tend to cause the symptoms to recur.

Take your remedy with a clean mouth free from drink, food, tobacco, toothpaste, or mouthwash. Do not touch the pillule with your hands – tip it out into the lid and then into your mouth. Allow the tablet or granules to dissolve in your mouth rather than swallowing them with water, and do not ingest anything except water for fifteen minutes after taking the remedy.

Amino acids

(My thanks to Claire for writing the following – please do not copy this info without my permission)

5htp (5-hydroxytryptophan) – has been found to increase serotonin like antidepressants such as Prozac. Hasn’t as many side effects as Prozac, but has some! like upset stomach (take the enteric coated to avoid that). Start low and slowly increase until you find relief, may take 1- 2 months or less in some.

L-tryptophan – Very much like 5htp in its action, can work better for some that 5htp.

L-taurine – Good for the heart and can have a calming effect on the body.

L-theanine – Mild but can be very calming (take with Vitamin B6). Non drowsy, no side effects.

L-phenylalanine – Good for stress! opens up the endorphin sites (where the happy hormones are).

SAMe (S-adenoslmethionine) – Effective for depression can be good for anxiety too! expensive but works quickly. Can have a few side effects. Not anything like antidepressants though.

Glycine – Brain sedative. Good for mania.

GABA – Doesn’t cross the brain barrier but when taken with niacinamide or inositol (both Vitamin B’s) can add to their calming effects.

Take all with a vitamin B complex, helps them absorb on the body and work more effectively.

Try Melatonin for sleep problems, regulates sleeping patterns! very good. Do not take if you have breathing problems of any kind!


(My thanks to Claire for writing the following – please do not copy this info without my permission)

The mineral lithium Orotate is found to be very effective for bipolar disorder! There is a drug called lithium but this is a mineral like calcium and magnesium.

Magnesium is found to calm the nerves – http://www.naturalcalm.net/order.shtml try this product.

Calcium is also calming on the body – http://www.bestnaturals.com/d_liquidRelax.asp product called ‘liquid relaxation’ might be worth a try.

Product for anxiety – http://www.emersonecologics.com/ProductInformation.asp?BrowseBy=ANXI1


(My thanks to Meg for writing this article – please do not copy this info without my permission)

For many, massage is still viewed as a pampering luxury rather than a pure and extremely therapeutic natural treatment.

Massage is an ancient science that dates back to 3000 BC or that is when the first record in a book refers to it. Not surprisingly this was the Chinese who first recognised the multiple benefits.

Next, Hippocrates who was essentially the founding father of medicine used to refer to medicine as ‘the art of rubbing’. He discovered that it reduced swelling and that patients relaxed with long flowing movements towards the heart. He decreed that all physicians should integrate massage into their daily practice.

Massage became universally known through Per Handrick Ling – the Swedish Gymnast who went to China to learn more about their techniques. He went on to found the Swedish massage which involved a variety of movements such as rotation, vibration, pressure, friction and stretching.

This became very popular and spread fast throughout Europe and in 1895 the first body of Trained Masseuses was established in Britain. In 1899 a massage department was set up in St.Georges Hospital in London by Sir. Richard Bennet.

Up until the 19th century, massage was firmly established and formed part of every medical practice.

Towards the late 19th century medicines became available and slowly overtook massage as a favourite means to relieving ailments due to the speed of results by drugs.

Today massage is classified under alternative medicine despite being a cornerstone of physiotherapy and sports injury clinics. It is also highly recommended by many migraine clinics and as a primary treatment for stress related aches and pains. Many intensive care units have over the recent years tried to introduce more massage and aromatherapy into daily care with excellent results and I some research studies have proven to reduce overall health costs.

If the client is in severe need , then it may take 2 or 3 treatments close together to really feel the benefit, so do not have one treatment and not return if you are very knotted or having sustained problems with headaches . Often energies and deeply trenched emotions are moved too which can lead to spectacular releases.

Many desired effects are obtained through massage. The largest organ in our body – the skin is stimulated, along with nerves, muscles, the circulatory and the lymphatic drainage systems. This boosts circulation, removes toxic wastes and promotes cellular renewal.

Many practitioners also use aromatherapy and at times Reiki, within the massage, for added benefit.

Massage helps smooth away stress, relieves nervous tension, unknots tense and aching muscles and relieves headaches. It often banishes pains and twinges and aids better posture as well as promoting sleep and so importantly reducing the heart rate and significantly reducing both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Having a full body massage promotes improved functioning of many of the body systems, promotes healing and muscle toning.

The client will feel invigorated, yet calm and relaxed with renewed energy levels. Often there is a new found balance of mood and lightness to the step. This is so important and vital in order to better cope with this worlds day to day stresses.

Always discuss your needs with the practitioner and choose one carefully- personal recommendations are best. Be wary of anyone who doesn’t take a medical history at your first meeting.

Often you get a better service and environment from a practitioner who is mobile or works from home rather than a busy beauty salon where it can be noisy and time is a major driver but as a relationship builds between the therapist and the client the massage can be tailored to your needs as measured by your responses.

Always drink at least 2 glasses of water after a massage to help flush out toxins and do not rush around for a few hours. Let your body receive and adjust to the changes.

Giving a massage gift token is a great present, especially to someone who might not otherwise ever try it.


(My thanks to Meg for writing this article – please do not copy this info without my permission)

Aromatherapy has been a part of humanity since the beginning of mankind. Hippocrates said “the way to health is to have an aromatic bath and scented massage every day.”

Aromatherapy has reputedly been in daily use for 6000 years or more. The Greeks, Romans, and ancient Egyptians all used aromatherapy in their everyday lives.

The Egyptian physician Imhotep recommended fragrant oils for bathing, massage, and for embalming their dead nearly 6000 years ago. Imhotep is also the Egyptian god of medicine and healing.

Civilization has been concerned with cleanliness for centuries. Archaeologists have discovered communal baths dating to 5000 BC in the city of Mohenjo Daro. Egyptian priests used aromatic material for treating manias, depression, nervousness and also to embalm pharaohs.

Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, used aromatherapy baths and scented massage. He used aromatic fumigations to rid Athens of the plague.

In India early temples (2000 BC) were built of sandalwood providing an aromatic presence at all times.

The term aromatherapie was first used in 1928 by a French chemist, René Maurice Gattefossé.

Gattefossé had badly burned his hand while working in a perfumery and quickly submerged his hand into the closest thing available, a barrel of lavender oil. His hand healed quickly and without serious scarring, which sparked his curiosity about the healing properties of this oil. He started investigating the effect of other essential oils for healing and for their psychotherapeutic benefits. His research soon led him to other essential oils where he began to recognize that the benefits of the pure essential oils were far superior to the synthetics.

In 1665, during the Great Plague, Londoners burned lavender, cedar wood and cypress in the streets. Since that time it has been discovered that these plants known to be disinfectants, bactericides and antiviral agents as well as excellent insect repellents

During World War II, the French army surgeon Dr. Jean Valnet used essential oils as antiseptics in daily practice.

Later, a French bio chemist, Madame Marguerite Maury elevated aromatherapy as a day to day holistic therapy. She started prescribing essential oils as remedies for her patients. She later developed the use of these oils externally in combination with massage.

In France, aromatherapy has always been recognized as part of the French medical tradition.

So, How Does Aromatherapy Work ?

Essential oils stimulate our powerful sense of smell. It is known that fragrances we smell have a significant impact on how we feel.

We have the capability to distinguish approximately 10,000 different smells.

Smells enter the body through cilia (the fine hairs lining the nose) to the limbic system, the part of the brain that controls our moods, emotions, memory and learning.

Examples of research include:

Studies using brain wave frequency have shown that smelling lavender increases the alpha waves in the back of the head, which are associated with relaxation.

Fragrance of Jasmine increases the beta waves in the front of the head, which are associated with a more alert state.

In a study conducted at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Hospital in New York, patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reported 63 percent less claustrophobic after getting exposed to the aroma of vanilla.

In another study, 122 patients who were in an intensive care unit, reported feeling much better when aromatherapy was administered with the oil of lavender

Japanese have reported less mistakes by data entry operators when exposed to fragrance. Also now smelly vision is not far away either through our TV’s or through our PC’s. The technology is being developed at huge expense as the manufacturers know that there will be massive opportunities for this market.

Which aromatherapy oils are recommended for anxiety and panic ?

Frankincense and neroli are two of the most important oils for anxiety. Use them liberally.

Frankincense will help you to breathe efficiently, it opens the bronchioles, and relaxes the diaphragm so the lungs expand and breathing becomes deeper and slower which is brilliant for you those who have a tendency to hyperventilate. Frankincense will also help make you feel safe within your body when you feel that you may be losing the plot.

Neroli will calm hysterical states rapidly. Apply one drop to the solar plexus both front and back, top of the feet and on the neck around the carotid artery.

A mist of neroli water around the face at the first signs of anxiety can often nip it in the bud and in a full panic attack will usually calm the person quickly.

Lavender is a very common oil well known for its calming and relaxing properties

If insomnia is an issue try a massage/bath with vetiver – it’s highly soporific. It was the one thing that got me off to sleep after 3 weeks of pure panic averaging about one hours sleep a night. It’s got a very strong distinctive smell which isn’t pleasant – but it did the trick for me.

For Tense Anxiety—Symptoms include bodily tension, muscle pains, aches, and a generalized soreness. Mix clary sage, lavender and Roman chamomile

For Restless Anxiety—including symptoms such as dizziness, sweaty, agitated, palpitations, a lump in the throat, frequent urination, diarrhoea and upset stomach. Vetiver, juniper and cedarwood are reputedly good

For Apprehensive Anxiety—this includes needless worrying, brooding, unease, a sense of foreboding. For help with this emotional state, try using bergamot, lavender and geranium

Repressed Anxiety—this variant of anxiety involves feeling on edge, concentration difficulties, irritability, insomnia, or a sense of chronic exhaustion. Try neroli, rose otto and bergamot

Scents to Relieve Anger: Chamomile, Jasmine, Patchouli, Rose and Ylang Ylang

Scents to Relieve Anxiety: Bergamot, Cedarwood, Cypress, Frankincense, Geranium (Rose), Hyssop, Lavender, Marjoram, Myrrh, Neroli, Orange and Rose

Suggestions of how to use aromatherapy oils

6-8 drops into running warm bath water

A few drops diluted in carrier oil used in massage

Diluted in water for adding to an oil burner

2 drops on a tissue by your pillow

A drop or two in the washing machine rinse cycle

If you’re feeling low or sad, use some Mai Chang in an oil burner. It’s a great pick me up. I always have some on the go when I have my appraisal and it always does the trick !

Vanilla is supposed to be great for claustrophobia but I’ve not used it myself.

Never use aromatherapy oils neat or on children – they can be too powerful.

There are a few exceptions to this like lavender on mosquito bites and tea tree on local infections but for an aromatherapy beginner it’s best not to try these until you’ve researched this further.

For topical use only – Do not eat or drink

Buying aromatherapy oils – there are thousands of sources.

Some are extremely pure, some are not very pure or extremely diluted – read the label. A price comparison is a usually good guide although some oils are extremely expensive to produce.

Our high street chemists and supermarkets usually carry a basic range that will be suitable for the casual user but you may pay a bit more for a well known brand name .There are many specialist suppliers on the internet

For further information on aromatherapy: The Fragrant Pharmacy by Valerie Ann Worwood. It is a comprehensive read.

St. John’s Wort

Written by Sarah (seh1980 on the Message Forum)

What is St. John’s Wort?

St. John’s Wort is an herb that has been used for centuries for various medicinal purposes, mainly for treating depression. Although the composition of St. John’s Wort and how it works are not fully understood, there is no denying that it is very effective in treating mild to moderate depression and anxiety. However, it is necessary to note that, according to recent studies, St. John’s Wort is of no benefit in treating major depression of moderate severity. More research is required to help us know whether St. John’s Wort has value in treating other forms of depression.

St. John’s Wort (Hypericum Perforatum in Latin) is a long-living plant with yellow flowers. It contains many chemical compounds, including hypericin and hyperforin, which are the ones that are thought to help treat depression. Although experts are not yet sure how these compounds actually work in our bodies, several theories have been suggested. Preliminary studies suggest that St. John’s Wort might work by preventing nerve cells in the brain from reabsorbing the chemical messenger serotonin, or by reducing levels of a protein involved in the body’s immune system functioning. Despite the fact that we cannot be certain exactly how this herbal remedy works, St. John’s Wort has been used for centuries to treat mental disorders as well as nerve pain. In ancient times, doctors and herbalists wrote about its use as a sedative and treatment for malaria as well as a balm for wounds, burns, menstrual pain and insect bites. Today, St. John’s Wort is mainly used to treat mild to moderate depression, anxiety, or sleep disorders.

Why do people take St. John’s Wort?

There are three main reasons why people choose to use St. John’s Wort instead of prescribed anti-depressants. Firstly, some patients who take antidepressant drugs do not experience relief from their depression. Furthermore, many patients report unpleasant side- effects from their prescription medication, such as a dry mouth, nausea, headache, or effects on sexual function or sleep. Secondly, some people turn to herbal remedies like St. John’s Wort because they believe that ‘natural’ products are better for them than prescription medications, or that natural products are always safe. As we will see below, neither of these statements are true. The third reason why some people tend to prefer St. John’s Wort over prescribed medication is due to cost. This is especially true in the US where prescribed medications are much more expensive than herbal remedies such as St. John’s Wort, which are sold over the counter.

Is St. John’s Wort widely prescribed for depression/anxiety?

Europe, St. John’s Wort is widely prescribed for depression. In the US, St. John’s Wort is not a prescription medication, but there is considerable public interest in this herbal remedy and it remains among the top-selling herbal products in the US. St. John‘s Wort products are sold in three forms: capsules, teas (the dried herb is added to boiling water and brewed for a short period of time) and extracts (specific types of chemicals are removed from the herb leaving the wanted chemicals in a concentrated form).

Does St. John’s Wort really work?

The real question is whether or not
St. John’s Wort really does treat depression and anxiety effectively. In Europe, results from a number of scientific studies have supported the effectiveness of certain St. John’s Wort extracts for both depression and anxiety. An overview of 23 European clinical studies found that the herb might be useful in cases of mild to moderate depression/anxiety. The studies, which included 1,757 outpatients, reported that St. John’s Wort was more effective than a placebo (a ‘dummy’ pill designed to have no effect) and appeared to produce fewer side effects than some standard antidepressants (British Medical Journal, 1996).
St. John’s Wort is also widely used by Americans who want to treat their own depression, but Dr P. Murali Doraiswamy, a psychiatrist at Duke University, North Carolina, spoke of his reservations at a recent conference, claiming that some of the studies were too small to be reliable and that long-term data was lacking. He also pointed out that the herb had not been compared with the most effective prescription drugs like Prozac and Zoloft.

Most scientific reviewers claim that St John’s Wort is promising but that its results remain unproven. The main problem is that many people take it irregularly and at incorrect doses. Because depression/anxiety is a serious illness and a major cause of suicide, the trend to self-medicate is worrying. Several studies of St John’s Wort are now in progress in the United States.
It is mainly herbalists who believe that
St. John’s Wort is as effective in treating depression and anxiety as prescribed medications. Keith Robertson, a qualified herbalist who practises in Glasgow and is Director of Education at the Scottish School of Herbal Medicine, believes that St John’s Wort is a gentle herb and effective herb. Most herbalists claim that they have been prescribing it for years and have never encountered any problems.

The Risks and the Side-Effects:

It is necessary to realise that there are risks involved in taking St. John’s Wort. Many so-called ‘natural’ substances can have harmful effects, especially if they are taken in too large a quantity or if they interact with another medication that the person is taking. The Medicines Control Agency issued a warning on March 1st 2000 that St. John’s Wort should not be taken by anyone who is already on any other medication until they have consulted their doctor. Research has shown that St. John’s Wort interacts with some drugs, including certain drugs used to control HIV infections, such as Indinavir. Other research shows that St. John’s Wort can interact with chemotherapeutic, or anticancer, drugs, such as Irinotecan. The herb may also interact with drugs that help prevent the body from rejecting transplanted organs, such as cyclosporine. More recent research has shown that St. John’s Wort can also counteract birth control pills. Using St. John’s Wort limits the effectiveness of these medications.

This herbal remedy is also thought to limit the effects of medications that are taken for asthma, epilepsy, migraines and heart problems. The authorities in the Irish Republic have gone further by banning the over-the-counter sale of the ancient herbal remedy since January 1st, 2000. It is now available only on prescription. One must also note that some people can experience side effects from taking St. John’s Wort. The most common side effects include dry mouth, dizziness, diarrhoea, nausea, increased sensitivity to sunlight, and fatigue.

Although it is widely thought that St. John’s Wort is a safe herbal remedy that will not cause any long-lasting negative side-effects unless it mixes with certain other medications, please do consult your doctor before you start to take it in order to ensure that you take the correct dosage in an appropriate way!!





www.naturalbodytherapies.co.ukClaire South qualified Massage Practitioner. Based in Hampton and covers Middlesex, Surrey and West London.

Great Ant Killer Recipe

Ant Killer Recipe
1 teaspoon boric Acid (you can get this at Wal Mart)
6 tablespoons sugar
2 cups hot water (this water must be really hot)
Mix ingredients and pour over cotton balls (cotton out of med’s bottles works too)
Put mixture in cottage cheese containers with lids and poke holes about 1/8 inch up from the bottom.
Don’t worry if you have more ants the first couple of days after third day ant problem should be gone.



this stuff really does work.

Why english is one of the most difficult to learn

We polish Polish furniture.

He could lead if he got the lead out.

A farm can produce produce.

The dump was so full, it had to refuse refuse.

The soldier decided to desert in the desert.

The present is a good time to present the present.

At the Army base, a bass was painted on a bass drum.

A dove dove into the bushes.

I didn’t object to the object.

The insurance for the invalid was invalid.

The bandage was wound around the wound.

There was a row among the oarsmen about how to row.

The two were too close to the door to close it.

The buck does funny things when does are present.

They sent a sewer down to stitch a tear in the sewer line.

To help with planting, the farmer taught his sow to sow.

The wind was too strong to wind the sail.

After a number of Novocain injections, my lips got number.

I shed a tear over a tear in my shirt.

I had to subject the subject to a number of tests.

How can I intimate this to my most intimate friends?

I spent last evening evening out a pile of dirt.


Here’s some good info on antioxidants….


in food industry – food preservatives

Antioxidants used as food additives to help guard against food deterioration include:


Nutritional antioxidants

See also List of phytochemicals and foods in which they are prominent

Since the discovery of vitamins, it has been recognized that antioxidants from the diet are essential for healthful lives in humans and many other mammals. More recently, a large body of evidence has accumulated that suggests supplementation of the diet with various kinds of antioxidants can improve health and extend life. Many nutraceutical and health food companies now sell formulations of antioxidants as dietary supplement. These supplements may include specific antioxidant chemicals, like resveratrol (from grape seeds), combinations of antioxidants, like the “ACES” products that contain beta carotene (provitamin A), vitamin C, vitamin E and Selenium, or specialty herbs that are known to contain antioxidants such as green tea and jiaogulan.

There are hundreds of different types of antioxidants. The following substances may have nutritional antioxidant effects:




Vitamin cofactors and minerals

  • Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an antioxidant which is both water and lipid soluble. It is not classified as a vitamin in humans as it can be manufactured by the body, but quantities decrease with age to levels that may be less than optimal, and levels in the diet are generally low. Supplementation with CoQ10 has been clinically proven to improve the health of gums. There is evidence that CoQ10 helps protect the brain against Parkinson’s disease.



  • Melatonin is a natural hormone, occurring in every organism, which has many biological roles. Melatonin acts as an antioxidant and promoter of antioxidants in several different ways.[27] Recent research supports a specific role as an antioxidant in mitochondria, which have an high level of reactive oxygen species produced during aerobic metabolism, but lack some of the protective mechanisms of cell nuclei.[28][29][30][31]


Carotenoid terpenoids

See main article at Carotenoid

  • Lycopene – found in high concentration in ripe red tomatoes.
  • Lutein – found in high concentration in spinach and red peppers.
  • Alpha-carotene
  • Beta-carotene – found in high concentrations in butternut squash, carrots, orange bell peppers, pumpkins, and sweet potatoes.
  • Zeaxanthin – the main pigment found in yellow corn.
  • Astaxanthin – found naturally in red algae and animals higher in the marine food chain. It is a red pigment familiarly recognized in crustacean shells and salmon flesh/roe.
  • Canthaxantin


Non-carotenoid terpenoids

Eugenol – has by far the highest Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of all foodborn substances (in clove oil).[32] Its concentration in clove oil ranges 5-20 times greater than where it is found in other sources such as in basil and cinnamon.[33]

Saponins and limonoids Editor’s note: Not certain if these are antioxidants; work in progress…

What’s in the Stuff We Buy

Introduction by Simon Quellen Field

This book started in my shower.

The label on the shampoo had many compounds listed, and due to my interests in chemistry, most of them were familiar or had obvious functions. However, one compound stood out as puzzling.

My shampoo listed sodium chloride as an ingredient.

Why was salt in my shampoo?

Since I wasn’t likely to be eating it, I doubted it was for seasoning, despite the strawberry aroma of the liquid. It could have been used as a preservative, but the remaining ingredients were more likely to kill microbes than was salt.

Once dry and dressed, I was still curious, so I wrote a letter to the manufacturer, asking why salt was in my shampoo.

I received a surprisingly enlightening response from the company. Someone had actually discussed the issue with a chemist, and gave me an answer that made sense.

The ingredients in the shampoo come from many different manufacturers, in many different places around the world. From day to day, a particular batch of shampoo may differ significantly from the previous day in the amount of moisture brought in with those ingredients.

Salt has the effect of thickening the mixture, and is added to each batch in the amount needed to raise the viscosity to a specified level. The customer now gets a product that pours in the same way each time. This consistency is important to the customer, since getting a watery product causes suspicions about value, and about possible tampering.

I have told this story many times, sometimes using it to make a point when teaching chemistry to popular audiences. There are thousands of chemical compounds in the ingredients lists of products we buy every day. Knowing what each one is doing in the product has obvious benefits in comparison-shopping. However, it also provides a sneaky way of teaching simple chemistry to people who had no idea they would find it so interesting. I am always looking for ways to make science more interesting to people who think it is only for people who use masking tape on their eyeglasses.

The book divides itself into two parts. The first part talks about common products, and discusses what each ingredient in them does, and why it is there, or what can be used instead.

The second part is a more in-depth discussion of each compound, usually accompanied by a structural formula, a picture of the chemical that allows it to be compared to others. It is in this section that you will find clearly marked “Chemistry Lessons” occasionally. If I have done my job properly, these will be interesting, and will relate to the compound that caught your interest in the first place.

This second part of the book can act as a reference. You can look up an ingredient you find on a label, and find out more about it. It may point you to other pages, or other compounds, and you may enjoy reading the book in this random fashion, rather than front-to-back. Feel free to do so. Feel free to skip over sections that don’t relate to what you came to find out. The book will be there later, when you have another question.

This book is not about scaring people. So much of the material you find on food additives or chemicals in common products is written to alarm people into changing their behavior in ways that enrich the writer. They point to the MSDS for a compound, the Material Safety Data Sheets, that list all of the dire consequences and safety precautions associated with a compound. These can be quite frightening.

Here is an excerpt from a typical example of an MSDS:

Hazards Identification
Lab Protective Equip: GOGGLES; LAB COAT
May cause mild irritation to the respiratory tract.
Very large doses can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and prostration. Dehydration and congestion occur in most internal organs. Hypertonic solutions can produce violent inflammatory reactions in the gastrointestinal tract.
May irritate damaged skin; absorption can occur with effects similar to those via ingestion.
Causes irritation, redness, and pain.

First Aid Measures
Remove to fresh air. Get medical attention for any breathing difficulty.
If large amounts were swallowed, give water to drink and get medical advice.
Wash exposed area with soap and water. Get medical advice if irritation develops.
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting upper and lower eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention if irritation persists.

In the event of a fire, wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.

Ventilate area of leak or spill. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment.

Keep in a tightly closed container, stored in a cool, dry, ventilated area. Protect against physical damage. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (dust, solids); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product.

Wear protective gloves and clean body-covering clothing.
Use chemical safety goggles. Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.

When heated to above 801C (1474F) it emits toxic fumes of chloride and sodium oxide.

Oral rat LD50: 3000 mg/kg.
Inhalation rat LD50: > 42 gm/m3 /1H.
Skin rabbit LD50: > 10 gm/kg. Investigated as a mutagen, reproductive effector.

Label Hazard Warning:
Label Precautions:
Avoid contact with eyes.
Wash thoroughly after handling.
Label First Aid:
In case of eye contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Get medical attention if irritation develops or persists.
Product Use:
Laboratory Reagent.

After reading that, you might expect that such a dangerous chemical had no business being around people, especially children.

Yet, we can’t live without salt. It’s even safe enough to put in shampoo.

What this illustrates is that the MSDS is intended for large industrial quantities of a substance, not the tiny amounts usually found in consumer products. Nonetheless, once you are experienced at reading them, they are a good place to get information on the safety of chemical compounds. In this book I do not cover safety issues, except occasionally, and briefly. To do a good job of that would require a much larger book, and there is already a wealth of information available.

One should be wary, however, of authors who would advise against a toothpaste because “it has anti-freeze in it!” The fact that salt or propylene glycol might make a good anti-freeze is no reason to ban it as a food additive. Further, creating confusion between the toxic ethylene glycol, and the food additive propylene glycol, both of which make good anti-freeze components, is not doing the consumer any favors.

Fear may help these folks to sell books, or organic toothpaste.

I hope curiosity is the reason you are reading my book.

Simon Quellen Field


  • Foods
  • Hygiene
  • Cleaning Products
  • Medicines
  • How to Read Structural Formulas


    • Dough conditioners and whipping agents
  • Preservatives
    • Ultraviolet light absorbers
  • Color stabilizers
      • Anti-oxidants
    • Anti-microbials
      • Buffers
    • Chelating or sequestering agents (water softeners)
    • Scents
    • Alcohols and Phenols
    • Stearyl alcohol
    • Cetyl alcohol
    • Glycerine (glycerol)
    • Menthol
    • Esters
    • Flavors
      • Acids
    • Esters
    • Chocolate
    • Vanilla
    • Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
    • Hydrolyzed vegetable protein
    • Sweeteners
    • Salt substitutes
    • Fats
    • Fat substitutes
    • Colors
    • Moisture controllers
    • Emulsifiers
      • Stabilizers and thickeners
    • Vitamins (when not used for nutritional value)
    • Minerals
    • Other nutrients
    • Stimulants
    • Medicines
    • Antibiotics
      • Pain relievers
    • Allantoin
    • Menthol
    • Rubefacients
    • Bleaching agents
    • Surfactants
    • Foam Stabilizers
    • Conditioners
      • Propellants

      • Polymers and glues
    • Abrasives
    • Citation information:
      Ingredients: What’s in the Stuff We Buy
      by Simon Quellen Field
      Kinetic MicroScience Press
      July 7, 2003

      Kitchen Tips

      Here’s some great kitchen tips and tricks I found surfing the net…..

      1. Stuff a miniature marshmallow in the bottom of a sugar cone to prevent ice cream drips.

      2. Use a meat baster to “squeeze” your pancake batter onto the hot griddle – perfect shaped pancakes every time.

      3. To keep potatoes from budding, place an apple in the bag with the potatoes.

      4. To prevent egg shells from cracking, add a pinch of salt to the water before hard-boiling.

      5. To get the most juice out of fresh lemons, bring them to room temperature & roll them under your palm against the kitchen counter before squeezing.

      6. To easily remove burnt-on food from your skillet, simply add a drop or two of dish soap and enough water to cover bottom of pan, and bring to a boil on stovetop-skillet will be much easier to clean.

      7. When a cake recipe calls for flouring the baking pan, use a bit of the dry cake mix instead-no white mess on the outside of the cake.

      8. If you accidentally over-salt a dish while it’s still cooking, drop in a peeled potato-it absorbs the excess salt for an instant “fix me up.”

      9. Brush beaten egg white over pie crust before baking to yield a beautiful glossy finish.

      10. Place a slice of apple in hardened brown sugar to soften it back up.

      11. When boiling corn on the cob, add a pinch of sugar to help bring out the corn’s natural sweetness. (ah, an old 1940’s Fannie Farmer trick!)

      12. To determine whether an egg is fresh, immerse it in a pan of cool, salted water. If it sinks, it is fresh-if it rises to the surface, throw it away.

      13. Cure for headaches: Take a lime, cut it in half and rub it on your forehead. The throbbing will go away.

      14. Don’t throw out all that leftover wine: Freeze into ice cubes for future use in casseroles and sauces.

      15. If you have a problem opening jars: Try using latex dishwashing gloves. They give a non-slip grip that makes opening jars easy.

      16. Potatoes will take food stains off your fingers. Just slice and rub raw potato on the stains and rinse with water.

      17. To get rid of itch from mosquito bite: try applying soap on the area, instant relief.

      18. Ants, ants, ants everywhere … Well, they are said to never cross a chalk line. So get your chalk out and draw a line on the floor or wherever ants tend to march-see for yourself.

      19. When you get a splinter, reach for the scotch tape before resorting to tweezers or a needle. Simply put the scotch tape over the splinter, then pull it off. Scotch tape removes most splinters painlessly and easily.

      20. NOW Look what you can do with Alka-Seltzer:

      • Clean a toilet-drop in two Alka-Seltzer tablets, wait twenty minutes, brush, and flush. The citric acid and effervescent action clean vitreous china.
      • Clean a vase-to remove a stain from the bottom of a glass vase or cruet, fill with water and drop in two Alka-Seltzer tablets.
      • Polish jewelry-drop two Alka-Seltzer tablets into a glass of water and immerse the jewelry for two minutes.
      • Clean a thermos bottle-fill the bottle with water, drop in four Alka-Seltzer tablets, and let soak for an hour (or longer, if necessary).
      • Unclog a drain-clear the sink drain by dropping three Alka-Seltzer tablets down the drain followed by a cup of Heinz White Vinegar. Wait a few minutes, then run the hot water.